1) Nano Materials : Nanomaterials describe, in principle, materials of which a single unit small sized between 1 and 100 nm. Nanomaterials research takes a materials science-based approach to nanotechnology, leveraging advances in materials metrology and synthesis which have been developed in support of microfabrication research. Nanomaterials can be categorized into four types [9, 10] such as: (1) inorganic-based nanomaterials; (2) carbon-based nanomaterials; (3) organic-based nanomaterials; and (4) composite-based nanomaterials. Generally, inorganic-based nanomaterials include different metal and metal oxide nanomaterials. Nanomaterial examples :
Performance Based Fillers : Fillers improve the performance in certain applications and can enhance the surface of finished parts. Filler is a widely used in the production process of plastic products. Filler is used to change the properties of the original plastic. By using plastic filler, manufacturers can save production costs as well as raw materials. These are used every year in application areas such as paper, plastics, rubber, paints, coatings, adhesives, and sealants. The top filler materials used are ground calcium carbonate (GCC), precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC), kaolin, talc, and carbon black. Filler materials can affect the tensile strength, toughness, heat resistance, color, clarity etc. A good example of this is the addition of talc to polypropylene. Most of the filler materials used in plastics are mineral or glass based filler materials.